The changing face of internal security threats in ghana

Marine Corps photo by Sgt.

The changing face of internal security threats in ghana

In the past, hunting provided the main source of animal protein and professional hunters occupied a highly respected position in the society. Even in modern day Africa, some groups such as the Bushmen in southern Africa depend almost entirely on hunting and gathering to obtain essential protein and cash income, while many other groups supplement their livelihood considerably by hunting see e.

The changing face of internal security threats in ghana

In many African countries, hunting is not only a means of securing food resources, but is also a social event rites of passage in which young men proved their manhood. Hunting with guns and bows is predominantly a male activity, but women and children also play a significant role in the hunting and collection of wild resources to feed the household.

In south eastern Gabon, women and children set traps for small mammals and birds: Women of the Luvale and Shaba tribes of Zaire also trap rodents and in West Africa, snail collection is predominantly done by women and children.

In the past hunting and exploitation of wild animals were regulated by traditional rules and every good hunter was expected to respect the traditional code of conduct that existed in whatever community he operated in.

With colonisation and the advent of modern wildlife conservation measures, many African governments have introduced restrictions on hunting. These restrictions include prohibition of hunting in national parks and other wildlife conservation areas, closed seasons in which hunting is prohibited, introduction of a license system and restrictions on species and age categories which could be taken.

In many countries, hunters are required by law to take out a hunting license which normally stipulates the number of each species he is allowed to hunt over a specified period of time. In some countries, bushmeat traders are also required to take a license which permits them to trade.

In southern and eastern African countries. Within West Africa, enforcement of hunting regulations is less stringent and is aimed at protection to allow wild animal populations to build up, since numbers of most species have already been drastically reduced by hunting. In most countries, hunting regulations concern large game species' a factor which explains the dominance of rodents and other small mammals in the species exploited as bushmeat.

Governmental controls do not normally apply to the collection of invertebrates such as insects and snails but in many African communities the collection of these groups of wild animals is governed by traditional rules and regulations. For example, in the southern forest areas of Ghana' particularly in Ashanti, an unwritten traditional law involving closed seasons exist which was highly respected in the past and effectively regulated the exploitation of the giant African snail Achatina achatina.

The closed season for forest snails was strictly enforced in most Ashanti villages; at the beginning of the snail season when the snails were laying their eggs the town crier would inform the community of the ban on snail collection.

This was aimed to allow hatching and growth of young snails. This was strictly adhered to until the season was opened by another announcement from the town crier. Several categories of hunters and hunting methods have been described by various authors based on number of hunters involved, time of day and the implements used.

Thus we have individual and group hunting, hunting with guns, bow and arrow hunting, setting of traps, night hunting and day hunting. In the past, flint-locks were used and these were made by local blacksmiths.

Currently, 12 gauge shot guns as well as locally made and imported rifles are commonly used. Most professional hunters own a gun; part-time and young hunters may or may not have their own guns. Within a population of about people in a village in north-eastern Gabon, the ratio of gun ownership was 1: Traditional hunting methods in Nigeria include the use of home-made muzzle-loaders, setting traps and snares, use of dogs and use of fire to drive animals out Afolayan, ; Martin.

The weapons used by the Bushmen of southern Africa consist of a light metal or bone-tipped arrow, whose quiver is made from the roots of the quiver tree Aloe dichotoma, a tiny spear and a hunting club. A short but sturdy bow is used to fire the arrow at close range. Bushmen daub their arrows with poisons extracted from roots, bark and berries of certain trees and also from the venom of snakes, spiders and scorpions Maliehe, Hunters in the Kiteto and Mbulu districts of the Arusha region in Tanzania also use poisoned arrows.

The poison are obtained from extracts of various species of plants which may also be used to poison fish Chihongo, Hunters may hunt individually, often assisted by a helper, or in groups.

Individual hunting may take place during the day or at night, in the forest or in secondary growth around farms. A professional hunter would leave his home in the morning for a day hunting expedition, returning in the evening.

Many farmer-hunters share their day time between farm work and hunting or trapping. Dogs are commonly used to sniff out the wild animals, Although illegal in many countries, night hunting is very common and very popular among professional hunters since the success rate is much council rd meeting (am & pm) security council holds first-ever debate on impact of climate change on peace, security, hearing over 50 speakers.

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The changing face of internal security threats in ghana

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